21 October 2009

The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution refers to a series of technological advancements in 18th century England:

Steam Engine
1776 - Separate condenser (James Watt)
1784 - Reciprocating to rotary motion (James Watt)
Iron Making
1784 - Puddling and rolling (Henry Cort)
Textile Industry
1765 - Spinning jenny (James Hargreaves)
1769 - Water frame (Richard Arkwright)
1779 - Spinning mule (Samuel Crompton)
1787 - Power loom (Edmund Cartwright)
Railways
1825 - Stockton-Darlington railway
1829 - Liverpool-Manchester railway

The Industrial Revolution spread from Britain to Europe and then to other countries. Industrialisation of different countries:

1775-1850  – Britain
1815-1870  – West Europe (Belgium, France, Germany)
1840-1900 – United States
1890-1915  – Japan

In a sense, the Industrial Revolution is still going on. 'Waves' of the Industrial Revolution:

1. First Wave (1775-1850)
a) Steam engine
b) Iron making
c) Textile industry
d) Railways

2. Second Wave (1830-1915)
a) Electricity
b) Internal combustion engine
c) Synthetic materials

3. Third Wave (1900-today)
a) Nuclear energy
b) Electronics
c) Computers

Source: Encyclopedia Britannica

1 comment:

estheppan said...

How much of this 'technology' was appropriated from india ?

Is it a case of wonder that India share in world GDP in 1750 was around 24% while that of britain was 1%, and as soon as britain took control of india, the so-called 'industrial revolution' happened in britain, and when british left india India's share in world GDP came down to 4% while britain's rose to 9% ?

That India, which was one of the world's largest exporter of Iron products and textiles for millenniums lost all its industries during british raj ?

Is it a case to wonder that the small scale industries widely prevalent in india, that used indigenously developed technologies were shut down comprehensively and their technolgies transferred to britain ?

Does all this give a pointer to how this 'industrial revolution' 'happened' ?

When one considers that indians had developed calculus in the 11th to 14th centuries, had produced the non-rusting Iron pillar a millennium before that, had calculated the diameter of earth and derived the so-called pythagoras' theorem centuries before pythagoras was born, the spurt of 'scientific progress' made by british after they captured india sound like the act of a thief and plunderer claiming himself to be the creator of what he plundered.